Types of Crystals A-Z
Agate is a member of the Chalcedony group of stones, which in turn is a member of the large Quartz family.
All types of Quartz are composed from silica (otherwise known as silicon dioxide) but differ due to their crystal structures.
Chalcedony stones, including Agate, are microcrystalline in structure, which means you cannot see the crystals inside the stone. Other types of Chalcedony include Jasper, Carnelian, and Chrysoprase.
Agate is generally distinguished from other types of Chalcedony due to its banded patterns and translucency: for example, Jaspers tend to be opaque and you cannot see through them if you shine a light on them.
Amethyst Agate is a rare form of Agate sourced from India which primarily comprises Amethyst Quartz and Agate.
This unique form of Agate displays intricate patterns, including patterns resembling eyes, and stunning crystal inclusions.
Bands and concentric circles of brilliant blue and brown contrast beautifully against the gorgeous subtle lilacs of this stone's Lavender Amethyst base.
Lavender Amethyst is a term used to describe the paler, lilac variety of Amethyst, and it sometimes forms in gorgeous sparkling druzy crystals, which can often be observed in this type of Agate.
Cherry Blossom Agate
This unique type of Agate is marked by a distinctive pattern that resembles flowers from the Cherry Blossom tree, hence why this stone is called Cherry Blossom Agate or Flower Agate.
Cherry Blossom Agate is a relatively new discovery, and is only found in Madagascar.
Atop a colourful base which can range in hue from subtle greys to pale pinks and reds, gorgeous floral patterns swirl atop the stone.
This stone is a plume agate which features elaborate white inclusions that give the stone its signature look: these plumes intersect to form the patterns unique to this stone, creating the illusion of seeds and petals.
Moss Agate, in some varieties identified as Tree Agate, is famously adorned with leafy green patterns resembling moss growth.
These distinctive moss-like patterns are the result of green dendritic mineral inclusions of manganese and iron within the stone.
Moss Agate can vary greatly in appearance: some specimens display large sections of milky white or Clear Quartz alongside the verdant green moss patterns, whilst other specimens display lots of banded grey and blue agate patterns.
Many of our high-quality Moss Agate pieces, sourced directly from India, also display a spectacular druzy effect where some of the crystal surface is exposed to show a coating of sparkling druzy crystals.
Amethyst is the purple form of Quartz and is one of the most popular semi-precious stones in the crystal world, owing to its beauty and purported crystal healing properties.
Chevron Amethyst, also known as Dream Amethyst or Dogtooth Amethyst, is a form of Amethyst which displays a stunning deep purple base adorned with gorgeous V-shaped white Quartz patterns.
A range of high-quality, hand-polished Chevron Amethyst Palm Stones sourced from Madagascar are available at Hidden Earth Ltd for your perusal.
Ametrine is the ever-popular, rare form of Quartz from Bolivia which combines golden-yellow Citrine with deep violet Amethyst.
Sourced from the remote Anahi mine in Bolivia, Ametrine is getting quite difficult for us to acquire nowadays.
Fortunately, we currently still have lots of high-grade single and double-terminated Ametrine points available for you to purchase.
Tourmaline is a boron silicate mineral that contains traces of iron, magnesium and titanium, which scientists speculate are the cause of its signature black colour.
This mineral is incredibly versatile, and can occur in many colours such as greens, pinks, and reds. The black variety of Tourmaline is sometimes called Schorl.
Our Black Tourmaline is sourced from India.
We have a large selection of high-grade, rough natural Black Tourmaline available for sale, as well as range of cut and polished shapes including Black Tourmaline Palm Stones, Black Tourmaline Spheres, and Black Tourmaline Hearts.
Apatite is a phosphate mineral which can come in many different colours, including Blue Apatite.
The name Apatite comes from a Greek word meaning 'to deceive': Apatite was thus named because this mineral is often mistaken for other minerals.
Blue Apatite often displays a mixture of hues ranging from deep petrol blues to pale blues and sea-greens: Apatite also shimmers and sparkles when rotated in the light.
Blue Apatite Spheres, Blue Apatite Palm Stones, and Blue Apatite Hearts, among other shapes, are available from Hidden Earth, sourced from Madagascar.
The Calcite family of minerals are primarily composed of Calcium Carbonate.
Measuring just 3 on the Mohs scale, Calcite is a very delicate mineral which must be handled with great care.
This mineral is commonly found included in many types of stone, and is often responsible for the colourful chambers of cut Ammonite Fossils.
Calcite is highly diverse in appearance, and occurs in many forms including baby-pink Mangano Calcite, transparent Optical Calcite (Iceland Spar), golden Honey Calcite, stunning Blue Calcite, and rare Caribbean Calcite.
Blue Calcite is the baby-blue coloured form of Calcite.
Calcite is one of the most common minerals on earth, but blue is one of the more unusual colours to find it in.
At Hidden Earth, we source high-grade Blue Calcite from Madagascar,
Each Blue Calcite specimen displays a soft sky-blue colour with a wonderful glistening sheen.
Blue Calcite is used by many crystal healers for its purported properties of aiding communication and is used in crystal therapies to help people speak more confidently.
Honey Calcite, sometimes referred to as Golden Calcite or Amber Calcite, is the golden, honey-coloured variety of Calcite.
When exposed to the light, the crystal's rich honey tones glisten beautifully, complementing the vivid rainbow-coloured bands present within.
Each Honey Calcite piece sparkles with a sensational spectrum of colour and displays vivid clarity and transparency.
Honey Calcite forms as rhombohedral crystals.
Currently at Hidden Earth, we only have Rough Honey Calcite available for wholesale. If you are looking for Polished Honey Calcite, please try our retail website Madagascan Direct.
Carnelian is a form of Chalcedony generally coming in red, orange or amber colours, but it can be banded as well which is then Carnelian Agate.
Carnelian, also known as Cornelian, is microcrystalline in structure, which means you can't see the crystals inside the stone.
The distinctive fiery colours present in Carnelian are caused by iron impurities within the Quartz.
Our Carnelian is sourced from Madagascar and comes in a variety of forms, including Carnelian Flame Shapes, Carnelian Free Forms, and Carnelian Palm Stones.
Fossil Wood, otherwise known as Petrified Wood or Fossilised Wood, is a tree fossil primarily composed of silicate minerals such as Jasper.
These ancient trees grew millions of years ago, and after death, the original wood material was replaced by colourful Jaspers, creating the Fossil Wood we find today.
In fact, the term "Petrified Wood" means "wood turned into stone".
When cut and polished, Fossil Wood specimens show marvellous, rich colours and mesmerising banded patterns.
Our Fossil Wood is sourced from both Madagascar and India, and comes in a variety of shapes including Fossil Wood Pebbles, Fossil Wood Hearts, and Fossil Wood Eggs.
Fluorite is the mineral form of calcium fluoride (it is composed of the elements calcium and fluorine) and is a member of the halide minerals family.
Pure Fluorite is colourless and transparent: impurities within the crystal are what causes the range of colours observed in Fluorite varieties.
Fluorite can display the whole spectrum of colour: for this reason, it has been dubbed "the most colourful mineral in the world".
Fluorite can be found in many places worldwide, including major mines located in Brazil, Mexico, China, and the USA.
Magnificently colourful Rainbow Fluorite showcases a spectacular spectrum of colour.
High-grade Rainbow Fluorite can display shimmering bands of vivid purples amidst stripes of vibrant, punchy turquoise, aqua blue and deep emerald green.
At Hidden Earth, we have a wide range of high-quality Rainbow Fluorite Points available for purchase, including Fluorite displaying natural crystal-encrusted edges, which we have dubbed 'Rainbow Fluorite Waves' given the wave-like appearance of these shapes.
Yellow Fluorite (Golden Fluorite)
Yellow Fluorite, also known as Golden Fluorite, showcases a stunning golden yellow shade.
Once illuminated, its unique golden shimmer comes to life, distinguishing it from other forms of Fluorite.
Yellow Fluorite often also displays vibrant bands of Purple Fluorite and dark Green Fluorite.
At Hidden Earth, we are currently sourcing high-quality Yellow Fluorite slices.
Other Fluorite Colours
This unique stone can display specimens with one pure colour, or multiple colours in banded patterns, as is found in Rainbow Fluorite.
In crystal spirituality:
Green Fluorite is heavily associated with the Heart Chakra, where it can be used to balance one's emotions.
Purple Fluorite is powerful when used with the Third Eye Chakra, which helps its user develop their sense of intuition, awareness, and understanding of themselves.
At Hidden Earth, we have a wide range of colourful Fluorite Freeforms, including Purple Fluorite and Green Fluorite.
Green Moonstone, otherwise known as Garnierite, is a rare silicate mineral which is also an important nickel ore.
The signature green colour of Garnierite is caused by nickel inclusions in the rock, which is usually a form of Serpentine rock.
Green Moonstones grow as Feldspar minerals like other Moonstones.
The shimmering, silvery Feldspar backdrop of Green Moonstone contrasts brilliantly against its vibrant mint and pistachio green inclusions.
Green Moonstone also displays mesmerising flashes of glowing blue adularescence.
Hematite is a heavily iron-based mineral, and is thus an important iron ore.
The appearance of Hematite can vary widely because this mineral naturally can display colours ranging from reddish-browns to blacks and metallic steel greys.
Hematite, otherwise known as Haematite, can also conduct electricity.
Each Hematite specimen displays a shimmering metallic surface adorned with rusty red speckles and sparkling tiny crystals: the polished surface reflects like a mirror, in a similar vein to Pyrite.
Indigo Gabbro, also known as Mystic Merlinite, is a part of the Gabbro family of minerals, which are forms of dark, grained igneous rock.
Gabbro is a combination of many minerals, but it is mainly made of Quartz (due to its chemical composition involving silicon dioxide) and Feldspar.
Indigo Gabbro in particular is a silicate which is often rich in other trace minerals, including iron and magnesium: confusingly, this stone is not actually a form of Merlinite, even though it is often referred to by its trade name Mystic Merlinite.
Our Indigo Gabbro is sourced from Madagascar and comes in a variety of shapes, including Indigo Gabbro Palm Stones, Indigo Gabbro Massage Wands, and Indigo Gabbro Spheres.
Jasper is a silicate mineral belonging to the Chalcedony crystals group, a subset of the large Quartz family of crystals.
Chalcedony gems are microcrystalline in nature, meaning they differ from other Quartz varieties in that the crystals inside them are invisible to the human eye.
Jasper is distinguished from other types of Chalcedony such as Agate by its opaqueness.
Jaspers are versatile and varied in appearance, and get their vibrant colours from impurities within the crystal matrix.
Types of Jasper include:
Fancy Jasper (Rainbow Jasper)
Fancy Jasper is a type of Jasper which is distinguished from other forms of Jasper by its multitude of vibrant colours: for this reason, it is also sometimes called Rainbow Jasper or Multicoloured Jasper.
Sometimes, Fancy Jasper can be very similar in appearance to Orbicular Jasper as it often shows orb-like speckles of colour.
At Hidden Earth, we source high-grade Fancy Jasper from mines in India.
Our Fancy Jasper is available as crystal towers, crystal palm stones, crystal spheres, and more.
Fruit Jasper, sometimes referred to as Ajooba Jasper, is a form of Jasper which is very earthy in its appearance.
This stone has been identified in literature as Sabalgarh Marble and is sourced from India: it consists of a brown matrix decorated by colourful nodules.
Fruit Jasper displays a mixture of mottled yellows, reds, pea-greens, and browns. The speckled pattern of colours upon the Jasper's surface make this crystal highly unique, and similar in appearance to fruit, hence its name of Fruit Jasper.
At Hidden Earth, we have lots of Fruit Jasper available in spheres, hearts, pebbles, and eggs.
Kambaba Jasper (Crocodile Jasper)
Kambaba Jasper is a form of Orbicular Jasper in the same vein as Ocean Jasper and King Cobra Jasper; this means it displays circular patterns of colourful orbs.
This type of stone is composed from Quartz and Stromatolites, making it incredibly unique as it is both a fossil and a crystal.
Stromatolite fossils can be found in some of the oldest rocks on Earth: they are the fossilised remains of primitive bluish-green algae (called Cyanobacteria), which date back to up to 3 billion years old!
These fossils lend the Kambaba Jasper its distinctive green colours and patterns (which is why it is also known as Green Stromatolite Jasper, Crocodile Jasper, and Crocodile Rock).
King Cobra Jasper
This colourful crystal is named King Cobra Jasper on account of its likeness with one of the deadliest snakes in the world.
The orbs in its distinctive snakeskin pattern were created by spherical inclusions of radial aggregates (needle like accumulations of crystals within the stone).
Ranging from the palest of white to a rich maroon hue, each individual King Cobra Jasper stone contains varying shades of colour in spaced patterns.
These distinctive colours and patterns differentiate King Cobra Jasper from all other kinds of Jaspers found around the world.
Orbicular Jasper (Ocean Jasper)
Originally sourced from the North East shores of Madagascar, this rare mineral also goes by the name of Ocean Jasper.
The distinctive orb pattern present in the crystal is caused by circular Quartz inclusions, and these orbs can be very colourful.
Orbicular Jasper displays stunning banded patterns and swirls and streaks of colour alongside its brilliantly colourful orbs.
Although Ocean Jasper is only found in Madagascar, there are other types of Orbicular Jaspers that can be found worldwide, including Kambaba Jasper and King Cobra Jasper.
Polychrome Jasper (Desert Jasper)
Polychrome Jasper is a gorgeous variety of Chalcedony which is found in large formations in Madagascar.
A relatively recent addition to the crystal world, Polychrome Jasper was only discovered in the last decade or so.
Polychrome Jasper derives its name from the multitude of colours it displays, including rich browns, oranges, beiges, and pinks (these colours are caused by iron inclusions): it is also called Desert Jasper because of its tan sand-like colours.
Polychrome Jasper is renowned for its similarity to Mookaite from Australia.
Red Jasper is one of the oldest stones used by man, and it is famous for its luminous deep red and maroon colouring, which is caused by iron impurities within its matrix.
Red Jasper has also been used throughout the ages for items such as snuff boxes and ancient seals and has even been carved into vases.
The stone is also believed by many people interested in crystal spirituality to have protective properties, and was often used as amulets and lucky charms by shamans in the past.
Red Jasper is available at Hidden Earth in crystal heart shapes, as well as in small pebble shapes/ thumb stones.
Labradorite is a mineral of the plagioclase feldspar group, and this beautiful stone consists of both albite and anorthite.
Labradoresence, otherwise known as the Schiller effect, is Labradorite’s famous property. When exposed to light, the gem becomes a shimmering tapestry of iridescent colour.
Luminous blues, purples, and greens sparkle and dance due to the refraction of light between the crystal’s many layers.
Golden hues, among other shades from the whole spectrum of colour, combine to create a glistening wonder unparalleled by any other crystal.
Labradorite is available for purchase from Hidden Earth in freeform shapes, pebble shapes, and spheres.
Lapis Lazuli is a stone that has been revered for millennia.
This blue semi precious stone is composed from many minerals, but lazurite is the one which gives it its signature shade.
Calcite creates the white flecks present atop the celestial blue base, whilst Pyrite bestows royal flakes of gold.
At Hidden Earth, we source high-quality Lapis Lazuli of the deepest blue shades from the mines of Afghanistan.
Lapis Lazuli Hearts, Lapis Lazuli Palm Stones, and Lapis Lazuli Spheres are available for purchase.
Lepidolite is a rare lilac coloured mineral belonging to the mica family.
This mineral is famed for being rich in lithium, but it is manganese inclusions which cause the pink, purple, and red hues characteristic of Lepidolite.
The stone can display a range of colours, from deep plums to pale lilacs.
Lepidolite is often found included in large Quartz segments, and flakes of this mineral are said to be the root of the stunning shade of Pink Aventurine.
High-grade Lepidolite sourced from Africa is available from Hidden Earth for purchase as spheres, palm stones, hearts, and egg shapes.
The mineral composition of Mookaite is referred to in a wide variety of terms such as Chalcedony and Chert. Generally speaking, it is a silicate mineral in the same vein as Quartz.
This stone is often referred to as a form of Chalcedony, but geologists argue that technically it is a silicified (silicate-rich) form of Porcelanite rock: its geological name is Windalia Radiolarite, referring to the area in Australia where it is found.
Mookaite is built from fossilised remains of microscopic aquatic creatures, and some rare pieces can even contain trace fossils from the dinosaur era.
This stone is incredibly vibrant in colour, and displays a range of vivid scarlets, brick reds, mustard yellows, and deep maroons in swirling patterns: in this way, it is similar to Polychrome Jasper.
This mineral is composed of iron and sulphur.
Pyrite is often mistaken for gold due to its golden colouring and tendency to be found in the same rocks as gold: Fool's Gold is thus a term that has been given to Pyrite.
Our Pyrite from India shimmers and shines with gorgeous golden hues which reflect like a mirror. Metallic golds contrast against a stunning backdrop of jet black in a marvellous tapestry of colour.
Quartz is a silica mineral primarily composed of silicon dioxide.
The Quartz family of minerals encompasses a wide range of stones, including sub-sets such as Chalcedony (which includes Jasper and Agate).
Quartz can occur in many colours, such as purple Amethyst, golden-yellow Citrine, and grey-brown Smoky Quartz.
Measuring 7 on the Mohs scale, Quartz is a relatively hardy and durable crystal.
Hidden Earth sources high-grade Quartz from Madagascar and Brazil.
Clear Quartz is the transparent form of Quartz, renowned for its intense clarity.
Quartz’s name comes from the German language, however, the Ancient Greeks referred to what is now known as Clear Quartz with their word for ‘ice cold’.
Prominent thinkers of the time believed the mineral to have been created from ice due to its clarity and transparency.
In Medieval Europe, clairvoyants used crystal balls made of Clear Quartz for spiritual and psychic purposes: crystal gazing and scrying were very popular ways to use Clear Quartz.
Clear Quartz is also referred to as Rock Crystal.
Hematoid Quartz (Fire Quartz)
Hematoid Quartz, or Haematoid Quartz, is the red form of Quartz.
The distinctive red shade of Hematoid Quartz is caused by hematite and iron inclusions within the Quartz.
Due to its fiery colours, Hematoid Quartz is sometimes referred to as Fire Quartz (alternatively, it is also called Specularite Quartz).
Yellow Quartz is sometimes referred to as a form of Hematoid Quartz as both Quartz varieties contain traces of iron oxide which cause their signature colours: however, Hematoid Quartz contains reddish-brown Hematite, whereas Yellow Quartz contains golden-yellow Limonite.
Rose Quartz is the baby pink variety of this versatile mineral, and is sometimes thus referred to as Pink Quartz.
The famous rose-pink colour of this stone is understood to be caused by traces of titanium, iron and manganese within the microscopic crystal structure, or the presence of tiny fibres of pink dumortierite.
However, scientists are still not certain as to the exact cause of Rose Quartz's enigmatic colour.
In Ancient Rome and Greece, Rose Quartz became an important symbol of the God of Love, who was believed to have brought the stone down to Earth to spread romance and love.
Rutilated Quartz is a Quartz Inclusion formed from a mixture of mineral inclusions and Quartz.
When the Quartz crystal was growing, minerals built up and were surrounded by the Quartz. These minerals, which are sometimes too delicate to survive by themselves, were consequently completely protected by the Quartz.
Consequently, the bright Quartz crystal base provides a window through which you can see into the crystal and the stunning formations within.
The needle-like inclusions found in this type of Included Quartz vary widely in colour from piece to piece of Rutilated Quartz, from copper rutile needles to black rutile needles and golden rutile needles (as seen in Angel Hair Quartz).
Smoky Quartz is the grey-brown variety of Quartz, and its colour is caused by natural irradiation during its formation.
This stone is sometimes spelled "Smokey Quartz": it derives its name from its smoky colouring.
Smoky Quartz can range in hue from the palest hint of grey, to rich golden brown, to near-black translucency.
Historically, Smoky Quartz was used to make sunglasses in 12th Century China. For example, judges used lenses made from the crystal in courtrooms to hide the emotions in their eyes in order to appear impartial.
High-grade Smoky Quartz is available from Hidden Earth in a range of shapes including Smoky Quartz Spheres and Smoky Quartz Palm Stones.
Tourmalinated Quartz, otherwise known as Tourmaline in Quartz, is similar to Rutilated Quartz in that it is a form of Included Quartz.
Within the Quartz, needles of Black Tourmaline are present as Quartz Inclusions.
The Tourmaline came to be encased in the Quartz as the Quartz crystal grew around delicate Tourmaline minerals.
Hidden Earth sources high-grade Tourmalinated Quartz, cut into sleek crystal points, from Brazil.
Yellow Quartz (Golden Healer)
Otherwise known as Golden Healer Quartz, Yellow Quartz is revered for its metaphysical properties and stunning honey colouring.
The distinctive warm golden-yellow shade of Yellow Quartz is created by the presence of Limonite, an iron oxide with a yellow colour.
Yellow Quartz is similar to Hematoid Quartz in that both Quartz varieties contain an iron oxide, however Hematoid Quartz contains red Hematite whilst Yellow Quartz contains yellow Limonite, hence their differing hues.
Citrine is famed for being the yellow variety of Quartz, however Yellow Quartz is not Citrine. Yellow Quartz is typically more opaque than Citrine, which is very translucent.
Rainbow Moonstone is a plagioclase feldspar mineral sourced from India: confusingly, it is not technically a traditional moonstone: instead, it can be referred to as White Labradorite.
Each Rainbow Moonstone piece displays a creamy white translucence: when exposed to the light, flashes of lunar white, like moonbeams, glow from within the stone alongside sparkling blues and rainbow colours.
Speckles of Black Tourmaline and blue Aquamarine crystals add a stunning contrast to the soft white base of moonstone.
High-grade Rainbow Moonstone is available from Hidden Earth in egg shapes, heart shapes, palm stone shapes, and sphere shapes.
Rhodonite is a silicate mineral which is relatively uncommon, and is more specifically known as a manganese silicate.
Variation in mineral inclusions leads to the spectrum of colour commonly observed in Rhodonite: the base colour can range from lighter rose pinks to shades of raspberry and deep reds.
Rhodonite is famous for the veins of black manganese oxide running through it which create fascinating patterns, often dendritic (branch-like) in nature.
Rhodonite Hearts and Rhodonite Spheres are available to purchase from Hidden Earth.
The Ruby is perhaps the most famous precious stone known to man.
Revered both as a gem and a natural crystal, this Corundum Mineral is one of the hardest stones in the world: it is second in hardness only to Diamond.
At Hidden Earth Ltd, we have a large supply of Natural Ruby Crystals in stunning hexagon shapes.
Many of our Rubies are natural Record Keeper Crystals: upon the surfaces of these Ruby Record Keepers, natural triangle shapes are etched in mesmerising patterns.
Learn more about rubies in our ruby crystals blog.
Yellow Septarian, also known as Dragon Stone, is a rock composed from various minerals including yellow calcite, brown aragonite, grey limestone, white baryte, and chalcedony.
It originated as a fossilised mud ball, which over millions of years underwent cycles of cracking and drying out, allowing yellow calcite to leak into the cracks to form its distinctive banded patterns.
This rock, rich in various minerals and unique coloured bands, internal cavities, and cracked patterns, is named Septeyre or Septarian in reference to the word "septum", which means "cracks, partitions, or walls".
Yellow Septarian Flame Shapes are available for purchase from Hidden Earth now.